Maps

Blank Map of Europe (click here for the jpeg file)

Languages of Europe

Religions of Europe

Europe prior to the French Revolution (1789)

Europe after the Congress of Vienna (1815)
 

 
Napoleon's Empire; by 1812 Napoleon directly ruled or controlled most of Europe
Napoleon's Empire; similar to the map above (slightly different projection)
France, 1815; in determining the borders of France, European heads of state were torn between the need to punish and control France, and the importance of reconciliation with France for a stable Europe.  The Second Peace of Paris of November 1815 permitted France to return to the borders of 1790 and to resume its role as one of the Great Powers of Europe.
German Confederation; the League of German states created in 1815 replaced the Holy Roman Empire.  The 39 states, of which 35 were monarchies and 4 were free cities, existed to ensure the independence of its member states and support in case of external attack (e.g., France).  The member states of Austria and Prussia lay partially outside the Confederation.
Poland, 1815; an independent kingdom in name only, Poland (most of which was formerly the Grand Duchy of Warsaw under Napoleon) was under the influence of Russia.  Prussia carved off Posen, and Austria maintained control of Galacia.  Krakow was defined by treaty as an independent republic.
Saxony, 1815; in 1806, Saxony had sided with France against Prussia and remained allies with the French for the remainder of the wars.  With Napoleon's defeat in 1815, about 40% of Saxony became part of Prussia.
Italian Peninsula, 1815
Quadruple Alliance; this alliance grew out of the need of the Great Powers to create a stable Europe, and had as its initial impulse the creation of a buffer against a future French threat.  Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia entered into the agreement as the basis for defending the balance of power in Europe.  France would later join this group to make the Quintuple Alliance.
Holy Alliance; the Russian Czar Alexander I, Emperor Francis I of Austria and King Frederick William III of Prussia entered an accord to treat each other according to the precepts of the Christian religion.  As a counterweight to the Quadruple Alliance, it served as a justification for repression against dissent (revolts).  The Holy Alliance quickly disbanded after the death of Czar Alexander I in 1825.

Back