AP Human Geography


Unit Descriptions

Unit Presentations

Class Rules

World Cup

APHG Articles

Syllabus Old Version


AP Human Geography        Home Page




Unit I   Unit II   Unit III   Unit IV   Unit V   Unit VI   Unit VII   Unit VIII   Unit IX   AP Review

unit i

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supplementary material

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AP Central
World Maps
United Nations
Country Watch
National Geographic
Population -
Reference Bureau
Smithsonian Institute
Worldwatch Institute
World Health Organization
CIA World Factbook
US Census Bureau
US State -
Federal Agency - Statistics
US Geological Survey
Association of - American Geographers
World Trends
The World Game

Language Laws

Travel Language


I. Nature and Perspectives

5-10% of the AP Exam


A. Geography as a field of inquiry

B. Evolution of key geographical concepts and models associated

with notable geographers

C. Key concepts underlying the geographical perspective: location,

space, place, scale, pattern, regionalization, and globalization

D. Key geographical skills

1. How to use and think about maps and spatial data

2. How to understand and interpret the implications of

associations among phenomena in places

3. How to recognize and interpret at different scales the

relationships among patterns and processes

4. How to define regions and evaluate the regionalization


5. How to characterize and analyze changing interconnections

among places

E. New geographic technologies, such as GIS, remote sensing, and GPS

F. Sources of geographical ideas and data: the field, census data, and

satellite imagery


Chapter 1
Introduction to Human Geography

Resource A


William Pattison's Four Traditions

The Five Themes of Geography

Key Geographical Skills

Traditions & Themes Handout

Chapter 1 Handout

Chapter 1 Review


Power of Place #1

Power of Place #2

"Ferris Bueller's Day Off"

Guns N' Roses World Tour


unit ii

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II. Population

13-17% of the AP Exam

A. Geographical analysis of population

1. Density, distribution, and scale

2. Implications of various densities and distributions

3. Patterns of composition: age, sex, race, and ethnicity

4. Population and natural hazards: past, present, and future


B. Population growth and decline over time and space

1. Historical trends and projections for the future

2. Theories of population growth, including the

Demographic Transition Model

3. Patterns of fertility, mortality, and health

4. Regional variations of demographic transitions

5. Effects of population policies


C. Population movement

1. Migration selectivity

2. Major voluntary and involuntary migrations at different scales

3. Theories of migration, including push and pull factors,

human capital, and life course

4. International migration and refugees

5. Socioeconomic consequences of migration



Chapter 2

Chapter 3


Current State of the World's Population

Population Growth - Doubling Time

Population Pyramids

The Demographic Transition

Chapter 2 Handout

Chapter 3 Handout

Chapter 2 Review

Chapter 3 Review

Population Geography Review

Article 34 Questions


Human Geography in Action:  The Hidden Momentum of Population Growth (India)


HGIA: Newton's First Law of Migration (The Gravity Model)


Power of Place #14

Power of Place #18



unit iii

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III. Cultural Patterns and Processes

13-17% of the AP Exam

A.  Concepts of culture

1. Traits

2. Diffusion

3. Acculturation

4. Cultural regions

B.  Cultural differences

1. Language

2. Religion

3. Ethnicity

4. Gender

5. Popular and folk culture

C.  Environmental impact of cultural attitudes and practices

D.  Cultural landscapes and cultural identity

1. Values and preferences

2. Symbolic landscapes and sense of place


Chapter 4
Local Culture, Popular Culture, and Cultural Landscapes

Chapter 5
Identity: Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality

Chapter 6

Chapter 7


Language Handout

Religion Handout

Identity, Race & Ethnicity Handout

Chapter 6 Review

Chapter 7 Review

Language Review

Religion Review

Architectural Styles of World Religions

Review on Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Globalization

Animated Map of Religious Diffusion


Power of Place #4

Power of Place #7

Power of Place #10

Power of Place #17

International Court of Justice: The Dayton Accords

The Global Mosaic

Ethnicity and Race

The Gods Must Be Crazy



unit iv


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IV. Political Organization

13-17% of the AP Exam

A.  Territorial dimensions of politics

1. The concept of territoriality

2. The nature and meaning of boundaries

3. Influences of boundaries on identity, interaction, and exchange

B.  Evolution of the contemporary political pattern

1. The nation-state concept

2. Colonialism and imperialism

3. Federal and unitary states

C.  Challenges to inherited political-territorial arrangements

1. Changing nature of sovereignty

2. Fragmentation, unification, alliance

3. Spatial relationships between political patterns and patterns of ethnicity, economy, and environment

4. Electoral geography, including gerrymandering


Chapter 8
Political Geography


Chapter 8 Handout A

Chapter 8 Handout B

Rise of the Modern State

State Organization and National Power


Devolution and the
New World Order

Review of the Political Organization of Space


Power of Place #3

Power of Place #19

of the Contemporary Political Pattern

Model Berlin Conference

Hotel Rwanda

The Nature of Political Boundaries


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V. Agriculture and Rural Land Use

13-17% of the AP Exam

A.  Development and diffusion of agriculture

1. Neolithic Agricultural Revolution

2. Second Agricultural Revolution

B.  Major agricultural production regions

1. Agricultural systems associated with major bio-climatic zones

2. Variations within major zones and effects of markets

3. Linkages and flows among regions of food production and consumption

C.  Rural land use and settlement patterns

1. Models of land use, including von Thünen's model

2. Settlement patterns associated with major agriculture types

D.  Modern commercial agriculture: the Third Agricultural Revolution

1. Green Revolution and the beginning of the biotechnologic revolution

2. Characteristics of the third revolution: blending of primary, secondary, and tertiary activities, intensification of mechanization, and development of biotechnology

3. Spatial organization of industrial agriculture

4. Diffusion of industrial agriculture

5. Future food supplies and environmental impacts of agriculture - hopes and fears


Chapter 11


Agricultural Origins and The Isolated State: Handout A

Landscapes of Rural Settlements: Handout B

Commercial Agriculture: Handout C

The Changing Geography of Agriculture: Handout D

The Green Revolution 
in India

An Indian Paradox

Two US 
Commodity Chains: Poultry & Pork


Livelihoods of Rural Peoples Review

Rural Settlement Forms Review

Commercial Agriculture Review

Global Disparities in Nutrition and Health Review

Review on Agriculture and Rural Land Use


Power of Place #6

Power of Place #12

Power of Place #21

Power of Place #25

House and 
Village Types

Commercial Agriculture

The Meatrix


unit vi

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VI. Urbanization and Globalization


Urban Powerpoint

13-17% of the AP Exam


A.  Definitions of urbanism

B.  Origin and evolution of cities

1. Historical patterns of urbanization

2. Rural-urban migration and urban growth

3. Global cities and megacities

4. Models of urban systems

C.  Functional character of contemporary cities

1. Changing employment mix

2. Changing demographic and social structures

D.  Built environment and social space

1. Comparative models of internal city structure

2. Transportation and infrastructure

3. Political organization of urban areas

4. Urban planning and design

5. Patterns of race, ethnicity, gender, and class

6. Uneven development, ghettoization, and gentrification

7. Impacts of suburbanization and edge cities


Chapter 9
Urban Geography

Chapter 14
Globalization and the Geography of Networks


Cities and Structure: Handout A

Location and Models: Handout B

Global Urbanization: Handout C

Modern Urbanism: Handout D

Cities and Structure Review


Location and Models Review

Global Urbanization Review

Modern Urbanism

Notes on Cities and Urbanization


Power of Place #5

Power of Place #9

Power of Place #13

Power of Place #23

Caesar III


unit vii


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VII. Industrialization and Economic Geography

13-17% of the AP Exam

A.  Key concepts in industrialization and development

B.  Growth and diffusion of industrialization

1. The changing roles of energy and technology

2. Industrial Revolution

3. Evolution of economic cores and peripheries

4. Geographic critiques of models of economic localization (i.e., land rent, comparative costs of transportation), industrial location, economic development, and world systems


Chapter 12
Industry and Services


Industrial Location

Industrial Distribution

Changes in Industrial Production

Weber's Theory of Industrial Location


Industrial Location Review

Industrial Distribution Review

Notes on Industrialization and Economic Development





Power of Place #8

Power of Place #11

Power of Place #16

Power of Place #22

Power of Place #24

Mapping the Core-Periphery Model


unit viii


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VIII. Development and Globalization

C.  Contemporary patterns and impacts of industrialization and development

1. Spatial organization of the world economy

2. Variations in levels of development

3. Deindustrialization and economic restructuring

4. Pollution, health, and quality of life

5. Industrialization, environmental change, and sustainability

6. Local development initiatives: government policies


Chapter 10

Chapter 14
Globalization and the Geography of Networks


The Geographic Impact of Development

Medical Geography

Uneven Development Across the Globe

Globalization and Networks

Rostow's Theory of Industrial Development

Measures of Development


Concepts of Development Review

Deindustrialization and Globalization Review


Power of Place #22

Power of Place #26


unit IX

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IX. Environmental Geography

Selected Sections of the AP Exam

A. Social Space

1. Decisions and Conflict

2. Uneven Development

3. Quality of Life

4. Sustainability


B. Modern Ecological Change

1. Nutrition and Hunger

2. Environmental Devastation


Chapter 13
Human Environment


Planet & Humanity

Human Impacts on the Environment

Confronting Human Induced Environmental Change


Environmental Change Review

Planet and Humanity Review

Confronting Environmental Change Review

Notes on Environmental Geography



Power of Place #15

Power of Place #20


Mr. Snyder's Day Off

AP Exam

AP Vocab and Def's

Quarter 1 Test Vocab

Semester Exam Vocab    


Unit 1

Nature & Perspectives

Unit 2


Unit 3


Unit 4


Unit 5


Unit 6

Units 7&8


Unit 9


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