URBANIZATION AND LOCATION
site of a city is essential to early success and long-term survival. Many early
cities would find themselves losing their early site advantage as
civilizations, and technology evolved and changed. Colonization and
industrialization would transform ‘
study of how cities function, their internal systems and structures and the
external influences on them is the field of urban
geography. Urban geographers want to know how cities are arranged, what they
look like, how their circulation systems function, how commuting patterns
develop and change, how and why people move from one part of the city to
another. In short, how and why a city and its residents look, act, and change as
they do. To do these studies, of course, you need to have urban places.
cities’ are not equally successful, An urban centers location strongly
influences its fortunes, its position in a large and productive hinterland—surrounding
service area—can ensure its well-being. The hinterland reveals the economic reach of each settlement, the maximum distance at which
people are still attracted for business purposes.
answer to the question of why some urban centers are more successful than others
is geography. When it comes to explaining the growth and success of certain
cities, situation—the external
locational attributes of an urban center; its relative location or regional
position with reference to other non-local places—is often the key. A city’s
situation can change, and the world’s largest and most enduring cities have
seen their situation improve with the times. Conversely, a city’s situation
can also deteriorate over time. Exhaustion of resources, repeated crop failures,
climatic change, and political developments all can change a city’s situation.
second locational factor affecting the development of cities and towns is their
site—the actual physical qualities of the place a city occupies. An urban
centers site may have played a key role in its original and early survival, for
example, as a defensive locale; but in modern times that same site may limit its
growth and expansion. Air stagnation, depleted water supplies, or changes in
transportation routes and means can reduce a previously advantageous site to a
in the 1990s
a percentage of total population, urban dwellers are most numerous in the core
culturally and economically diverse realm of
than 300 cities in the world have populations exceeding 1 million.
If you compare this map with text Figure 18-6, you will find that the
former map shows the concentration of large cities in eastern
of the worlds most populous cities are found in the poorer countries, and it
also indicates how fast individual cities in poorer countries are growing
compared to conurbations in richer countries. Despite wretched living conditions
for many of their inhabitants, cities continue to attract new residents by the
This term describes the spatial process of clustering by commercial
enterprises for mutual advantage and benefit
In ranking urban places, which of the following is at the bottom of the
In some parts of the world, large metropolises are coalescing to create
megacities called megalopolises. One such is the so-called Bosnywash in the
on the Eastern Slope of the
In the late
1990s, the world’s
fastest-growing urban area is:
The city of
The capital city of
Which of the following continents has the lowest level of urbanization.
United Nations studies suggest that by 2025 there may be as many as ____ cities
with populations over 20 million.
Cities in poorer parts of the world generally lack enforceable laws to
ensure the orderly use of space. Such laws are called ____ laws.
Relative location played a big part in which cities grew during the
While some hamlets may have no urban functions, all villages do. (TF)
The megalopolis of Bosnywash in the
All the fastest growing cities in today’s world have benefited from
being located at a site which permits easy expansion. (TF)
Outside North American and
Most of the worlds largest, and still growing cities, are found in
developed countries. (TF)
By careful planning, the fastest growing cities are meeting the needs of
their fast growing population. (TF)
Cities in developing countries lack zoning laws. (TF)
Cities the world over are culturally regionalized. (TF)
List and define the ranking system the urban places. What is a hinterland
and why is it important?
List the positive and negative factors found in and around a city’s
site. Do the same for a city’s relative location (situation). Give two example
cities and explain how these factors have affected them. Have their relative
locations (situations) changed over time?
Discuss urbanization by continent and region using the material in your
text. Find the countries with the
largest cities. Relating back to the text, which cities are growing the fastest?
Which regions have the slowest growing cities? Why is this pattern emerging?