Chapter Outlines

Key Concepts

Chapter 14 [A] Territorial Dimensions of Politics  
Chapter 15 [B] Evolution of the Contemporary Political Pattern
Chapter 16 [C] Challenges to Inherited Political-Territorial Arrangements
Chapter 17


A)  Territorial Dimensions of Politics
Students should understand that drawing connections between politics and geography is not just knowing the location of current events. Instead, they should understand the ways in which political-territorial arrangements reflect and influence other aspects of geography. If individuals have any geographic image of the world at all, it is likely to be an image of a world carved up into independent countries, with perhaps some capital cities and a few major physical features sprinkled in the midst. As a result, the world political map has a certain taken-for-granted quality that provides an easily accessible frame of reference for students, but that also makes it difficult for them to ask questions about the political organization of space that go beyond knowing where things are.

A major goal of the political geography section is to establish a generalized understanding of the nature and significance of the political organization of territory in the contemporary world.

Students should know:
1. The basic ways in which humans have divided the planet for purposes of governance and control, as well as the implications of that division for such fundamental matters as the development of ethno-national conflicts.

2. The emergence of regional political-economic blocs, and the struggles to develop coordinated responses to issues that extend beyond the borders of one state.

3. How and why the political-territorial basis of the modern state system is changing.

4. That political geographic processes play out at a variety of scales, from local to regional to national to supranational to global.

5. What happens at one scale often influences what happens at other scales.

The Concept of Territoriality
Human territoriality is the attempt to control what goes on in a specific geographical area. There are various ways to control space that range from pure physical force of an individual to organized sets of laws.  Most geographers believe that human territoriality differs from the territorial behavior observed in other forms of life because human behavior is learned and animal behavior is instinctive.

Nature and Significance of Political Boundaries
Political boundaries exist at a variety of scales, and these boundaries influence how goods and services are distributed, who gets represented and who does not, and how issues are confronted.

Because the boundaries that receive the most attention are boundaries between independent countries, one might begin this discussion by considering the historical and contemporary role of these boundaries and how they reflect the distribution of other phenomena. Students can be introduced to the boundaries identified in the classical political geography literature (antecedent, geometrical, superimposed, etc,) and they can be encouraged to consider the relationship of those political boundaries to social, economic, cultural, and environmental boundaries. For example, one can see some relationships between maps of precipitation patterns and maps of population density, or between maps of population density and maps of particular types of economic activities. But the world political map looks like no other thematic map.

Encourage students to think about the ways in which political boundaries structure human affairs and understandings. Political boundaries of significance exist both 'above' and 'below' the state.  For 'above' the state, boundaries such as the former Iron Curtain, the current boundary between NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and non-NATO states, or the boundaries that have been drawn through the world's oceans to demarcate zones of control.  For 'below' the state consider municipalities, voting districts, special districts, and areas zoned for particular land uses. Focusing attention on smaller-scale political-territorial units allows students to see how everything from the delivery of services to the reach of certain laws is affected by the particular configuration of political territories. Perhaps the most evocative example of political territory at the local scale is that of the voting district, for it is here that the significance of political boundaries for questions of representation can be most clearly demonstrated. Examples of gerrymandering should be used to highlight the importance of thinking about territory not simply in locational terms, but as a dynamic force in human affairs.

Influences of Boundaries on Identity, Interaction, and Exchange …

Borderlands have often been the locale of major folk cultural achievements.  A line drawn in various ways, a border marks the place where adjacent jurisdictions meet. This combined conjunction and separation of national laws and customs creates a zone in which movements of people and goods are greatly regulated, examined, discussed, and hidden. Commerce attains a higher importance in border society as does dialogue about the identities of its peoples. Smuggling, the myriad signs in border towns, legal and illegal immigration, and the use of unneighborly names between neighbors are parts of this picture of accentuated concern with the trade in goods and the flow of people.

The border is an environment of opportunity. Individuals find work enforcing or avoiding the laws that regulate movement. Companies use national differences in labor and environmental regulations to pursue their advantage. Border society thrives on difference, and people and institutions come there to exploit niches in its environment.

Borders are artifacts of history and are subject to change over time. When borders shift, lands and peoples are subjected to different sets of rules; this creates opportunities for exploitation, conditions of hardship, and motivations for revolt.

An approach to describing a society constructed by difference is necessarily many-voiced. Rather than a central, authoritative perspective, we strive for a de-centered point of view, one with many authoritative speakers. Of course, this is more easily achieved in the Festival of American Folklife program, where citizens of the border region speak and perform for themselves and their communities. But even in this printed medium, through translation and transcription, a variety of authorities are represented.

Border society is an abstract concept compounded of ideas about the sovereignty of nation-states, the intensification of commerce and social discourse, and strategies of cultural representation. The U.S.-Mexico border can be understood in those terms; and in this it is similar to borders like those between the United States and Canada , East and West Germany , or Kenya and Tanzania . But a particular history of the U.S.-Mexico border is expressed in the images, sounds, discourse genres, and social formations discussed within this and other essays. This particular historical development has made the border the planet's longest between a country characterized by economic practices and achievements sometimes known as "first-world" and a country whose economy is sometimes characterized as the “developing world." The growth of a capitalist world economy provided the context for the development not only of U.S.-Mexico border culture, but also of other types of cultural processes that incorporate difference: acculturation, creolization, and the growth of various cultural diasporas.

B) Evolution of the Contemporary Political Pattern:  Link

Internal Political Boundaries and Arrangements

Students should understand the different approaches to territorial governance involved in federal and unitary systems. In addition they should consider of hierarchies political-territorial organization, from municipalities and special districts, to counties, states, and provinces, to the state itself. In each case, it is important to go beyond the simple presence of political territories to consider the ways the political organization of space influences the distribution of power and opportunity. It is important to describe territorial arrangements that may not fit within the usual hierarchy of political-territorial governance-such as Indian Reservations in the United States . Such territorial structures reflect the tension between the dominant political pattern and influences that can be antithetical to it.

Electoral maps should also be discussed and analyzed. Such maps are widely used not just to show who has won and lost elections, but patterns of support for different candidates and issues. These maps allow students to consider relationships among political and cultural patterns. Discussion of formal political-territorial arrangements, should include geographical influences on internal political integration such as the impacts of the territorial shape (elongated, fragmented, or prorupted forms) and geographical situation of countries (landlocked). Students should understand that territorial shape and situation are but one of many influences between geography and politics.

C)  Challenges to Inherited Political-Territorial Arrangements: The Changing Nature of Sovereignty
The concept of sovereignty itself is being questioned, as developments at a variety of different scales are undermining the state-territorial system. They range from the expanding scope of multinational corporate activity to the inability of some states to exert much control over the domestic economy in the face of international debt payments and the need to sustain the production of key cash crops for external consumption.

Fragmentation, Unification, Alliance

Challenges to the inherited political-territorial order do not simply come in spatially ambiguous economic forms, however. There are concrete examples of fragmentation, unification, and alliance that are altering the political geographic order. Most obviously, the growth of increasingly powerful regional political-economic blocs, including the Organization of African Unity, the Arab League, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and the European Union (formerly European Community). The EU is moving toward a time when it will supercede the traditional sovereign powers of its member states. The EU represents a novel form of political space in the international arena, with potentially far-reaching consequences for the global political order.

The EU has facilitated the development of cross-border cooperation regions that are reshaping the spatial parameters of Europe 's political and social order. More broadly, discussing the impetus behind European integration, and the geographical circumstances that facilitated that impetus (e.g., economic complementarities, commonalities of political and economic systems, an infrastructure and settlement pattern facilitating integration) allows students to understand the context of the European integration initiative and to compare and contrast it with regional integration initiatives in other parts of the world.

Students should be made aware of alternative forms of suprastate political-territorial integration, and of the classic geopolitical doctrines discussed in the major texts (Mackinder's Heartland theory). They should also know the contemporary alliances that bring states together largely for geopolitical ends (e.g., the North Atlantic Treaty Organization), as well as to regional geoeconomic integration initiatives that are facilitating economic development. In addition, students can be made aware of the role of global organizations such as the United Nations in setting up regimes for peace keeping, human rights monitoring, and management of the world's oceans. Students should become familiar with the ways in which the international law of the seas treats coastal waters, Exclusive Economic Zones, and the high seas, as well as the presence of (and reasons for) jurisdictional conflicts in such high-profile cases as the South China Sea. Sketching some of the better-known cases of intrastate ethno-nationalist conflict promotes consideration of the status of the nation-state ideal today.

Spatial Relationships Between Political Patterns and patterns of Ethnicity, Economy and Environment
The division of the world into individual states impedes efforts to confront environment problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer, the loss of biodiversity, and global warming. This situation provides important insights into the territorial dynamics of the state system and its limitations as a decision-making framework. Effective action largely occurs where the economic stakes are not high (e.g., the regulation of chlorofluorocarbons), but in other areas, state interests continue to drive the regulatory process (e.g., the strategy for dealing with carbon emissions under the
Kyoto protocol). The explosion of interest and concern over environmental matters has led to growing pressure on state structures and leaders to adopt progressive environmental postures-even at the expense of traditional sovereignty. We are not living in a world in which most fundamental human realities can be understood or addressed within the territorial state. Yet the state is still fundamentally important as is illustrated by the dozens of interstate territorial conflicts in the contemporary world. There are dozens of active territorial disputes that have flared up in recent years. If control over territory had lost its political/geopolitical significance in the modern world, such conflicts would not be an important dynamic in international relations. The point is that challenges are growing to the dominant political-territorial framework of the modern era, but that the modern state system continues to be the frame of reference against which opposition movements are set - be they ethnic, social, economic, geopolitical, or environmental.



   I.  Introduction

  II.  Political culture

   A. Boundaries

        1.  Congressional districts to international

        2.  Reflect political culture

   B.  Territoriality

        1.  Human territoriality

        2.  Key element of political culture

        3.  Discussion of human feelings toward state territory

 III.  State and nation

   A. Terminology

        1.  State and country are interchangeable

        2.  States within a state

        3.  A nation may be larger than a state

        4.  Many countries are states but not nations

   B.  Stateless nations

        1.  Example of the Palestinian Arabs

        2.  Example of the Kurds

   C.  Rise of the modern state

        1.  The European model

             a)         The Norman invasion of 1066 produced a whole new political order

             b)         On the European continent, the strength of some rulers produced national cohesiveness in more stable domains

             c)         Economic revival and Dark Ages were over

             d)         Treaties signed at the end of the Thirty Years' War contained fundamentals of statehood and nationhood

        2.  Power and primacy (in Europe )

             a)         Mercantilism

             b)         Religious wars

             c)         During the mid-seventeenth century, instability ruled, and strife occurred frequently

             d)         City-based merchants, not the nobility, gained wealth

             e)         As money and influence were concentrated in the cities, land as a measure of affluence began to lose its relevance

  IV. The nation-state

   A. Became the world model

        1.  Some became democratic, some autocratic, and some parliamentary democracies

        2.  Sovereignty rests with the nation–the people

        3.  A modern state founded on democratic principles

        4.  National territories were clearly defined by boundaries

        5.  Focus on: Defining the Model Nation-State

   V. Geographic properties of states

   A. Physical and cultural properties

        1.  States differ in as many ways as they are similar

        2.  Vast differences in size and population

        3.  The state is a complex system

        4.  To succeed must foster a sense of legitimacy

        5.  Spirit of nationhood is very fragile

        6.  Boundaries often throw together peoples of diverse cultures or divide peoples with cultural affinities

  VI. Territory

   A. No state can exist without it

        1.  Large states have a better chance of having a wide range of environments and adequate natural resources

        2.  Territorial morphology–size, shape, and relative location

        3.  Different territorial characteristics can present opportunities and challenges

   B.  Shape

        1.  Compact – Hungary , U.S.

        2.  Fragmented – Philippines , Seychelles

        3.  Elongated – Chile , Vietnam

        4.  Prorupt – Thailand , Venezuela

        5.  Perforated – South Africa , Italy

   C.  Exclaves and enclaves–defined and described: Armenia & Azerbaijan

   D. Landlocked countries – Afghanistan , Uganda , Zambia

        1.  Face locational challenges

        2.  Political instability of coastal neighbors can be a problem

 VII.     Land boundaries of states

   A. International boundaries

        1.  A vertical plane cutting through the rocks below, and the airspace above

        2.  Arguments arise over coal, oil, and gas reserves that lie across boundaries

        3.  Example of the oil dispute between Iraq and Kuwait

        4.  Disputes arise over airspace, and pollutants of one state crossing into another

   B.  The evolution of boundaries

        1.  Definition

        2.  Delimitation

        3.  Demarcation

        4.  Not all boundaries are demarcated

   C.  Types of boundaries

        1.  Geometric boundary

        2.  Physical-political boundary or natural-political boundary

        3.  Cultural-political boundary

   D. Origin-based classification

        1.  Genetic boundary classification established by Richard Hartshorne

        2.  Hartshorne reasoned that certain boundaries were defined before present-day human landscapes developed

             a)         Antecedent boundary

             b)         Subsequent boundary

             c)         Superimposed boundary

             d)         Relic boundary

   E.  Frontiers

        1.  The terms "frontier" and "boundary" are not interchangeable

        2.  A frontier is a zone of separation

        3.  Used before boundaries separated countries

VIII.     Functions of boundaries

   A. Introduction

        1.  Used to keep people from moving across them

        2.  Today boundaries mark the limit of state jurisdiction

        3.  Serve as state symbols of sovereignty and foster nationalism

   B.  Internal boundaries

        1.  Needed for administrative purposes, and sometime accommodate cultural regionalism

        2.  Examples: United States , Canada , India

        3.  Some culturally divided countries have internal boundaries that do not show on a map

        4.  The former Yugoslavia (Figure 25-7)

   C.  Boundary disputes

        1.  Can take place for many different reasons

        2.  Four principal forms of boundary disputes

             a)         Definitional

             b)         Locational

             c)         Operational

             d)         Allocational




   I.  Organization and population

   A. Role of population numbers

        1.       Example of China

           a)   Annual economic growth of 9 to 13 percent

           b)   People earn just a tiny fraction per capita of what Americans earn

           c)   Population more than 1.2 billion and adding 13 million each year

           d)   Economy cannot keep up with population growth

        2.       States could acquire colonial empires because they were already economically successful

           a)   Allowed small states to control human numbers far greater than their domestic population

           b)   Colonial acquisitions produced a multiplier effect

        3.       Over half the world's states have populations below 5 million

        4.       Ministates have fewer than 1 million citizens

        5.       There is no "ideal" or model population size for a state

        6.       People's capacities for organization are more important

   B. Core areas

        1.       Play an important role in a state's development

           a)   Includes the cities and usually the capital

           b)   Densest population cluster, and most intensive transport networks

           c)   National economy is best developed, and often contains the most intensively cultivated farmlands

           d)   Examples: Japan , France , and Egypt

        2.       Some states possess more than one core area

           a)   Nigeria 's three cores mark ethnic and cultural diverse areas of the state

           b)   The U.S. dominant core area is not competitive with its subsidiary core areas

   C. Capital cities

        1.       The brain of the state–source and symbol of power

        2.       Many new developing countries spent lavishly on their capitals in imitation of the European model

        3.       Many newly independent countries moved their capitals

           a)   To be nearer the geographic center of their state–called forward capitals

           b)   Examples: Nigeria , Brazil , Pakistan

        4.       Reunification of Germany restored Berlin as the capital

        5.       May be a unifying force that can assert a state's posture internally and externally

   D. Unitary and federal systems

        1.       The needs of a well-functioning state

           a)   Clearly bounded territory served by an adequate infrastructure

           b)   Effective administrative framework, a productive core area, and a prominent capital

        2.       All states confront divisive forces

        3.       Early European nation-states were unitarian

           a)   Governments were highly centralized and powerful

           b)   Capital cities represented authority that stretched to the limits of the state

        4.       Federal states arose in the New World

           a)   Newness of the culture, and emergence of regionalism due to the vast size of territories

           b)   Considerable power was given to states and provinces

        5.       When colonialism ended federalism seemed the answer for newly established countries

        6.       Britain helped India successfully federalize during the 1940s

        7.       European states are reconstructing their administrative frameworks–France

   E. Opposing forces

        1.       Centripetal or binding forces that promote unity

           a)   Redivision of Nigeria into 30 states has had some success

           b)   Governments seek to nurture nationalism by including minorities in government

           c)   Need for a charismatic individual as leader to unite the people

           d)   Real or perceived threats to a country can unite

           e)   Education from institutions or the church

           f)    A national ideology, examples: Nazism, Communism

           g)   Circulation–people moving about the country diffusing national norms

        2.       Focus on: Electoral Geography                       

        3.       Centrifugal forces

           a)   States collapse when they outweigh centripetal forces

           b)   Examples: Soviet Union , Czechoslovakia , and Yugoslavia

   II. Power relationships

   A. A state's power directly relates to its capacity for organization

        1.       Ability to use tangible and intangible resources to affect the behavior of other nations

        2.       States can win concessions through economic strength

        3.       Dominant colonial nations

           a)   Controlled because of their economic, political, and military organization

           b)   The capacity to install infrastructures for efficient profiteering

           c)   Evidence of these economic systems remained after decolonization

   B. Geopolitics

        1.       Ratzel's organic theory

        2.       Geopolitics became a subfield of political geography

        3.       Heartland theory–Sir Halford Mackinder

           a)   Believed a land-based power, not a sea power, would ultimately rule the world

           b)   His pivot area, later he renamed it the heartland (Figure 26-5)

        4.       Nicholas Spykman, a critic of Mackinder, argued that the Eurasian rim, not its heart, held the key to global power

        5.       Spykman coined the world "rimland," which is still used today

   C. A multipolar world–again?

        1.       Ours was a multipolar world until the end of the World War II

        2.       After the end of World War II, a bipolar world emerged

        3.       Two clear superpowers, the United States and the former Soviet Union

        4.       Today the United States is the dominant world force, but outlines of a new multipolar world are forming

           a)   Russia , Europe , China

           b)   We may be faced with an unstable world with great potential for conflict



   I.     Supranationalism

           A.   The efforts of three or more states to forge associations for common advantage and in pursuit of common goals

                 1.    Today, some 60 organizations exist

                 2.    The more states involved the less likely they are to act alone in selfish pursuits

           B.   International sanctions

                 1.    Can induce a state to change its behavior

                 2.    Examples: South Africa , Haiti , North Korea

           C.   From League of Nations to United Nations

                 1.    Supranationalism began with the forming of the League of Nations in 1919

                 2.    The League, though unsuccessful itself, spawned other international organizations

                 3.    The League laid groundwork for maritime boundaries that helped decades later

  II.     The United Nations

           A.   Representation of countries has been more universal than that of the League (Figure 27-1)

                 1.    Membership of 185 states in 1998

                 2.    Has many subsidiaries that are very productive

                 3.    Member states are committed to standards of behavior

           B.   Peacekeeping operations

                 1.    Individual states have asked the UN to intervene in internal conflicts

                 2.    Any UN army is made up of soldiers from member states

                 3.    Peace-keeping operations are not always successful–Yugoslavia

                 4.    In early 1998, more than 70,000 peacekeeping forces served in many different countries

                 5.    The UN peacekeeping function provides major benefits to the international community

           C.   Unrepresented peoples

                 1.    Created in 1991, the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)

                 2.    Applications for membership in the UNPO came from all over the world

                       a)    Cannot solve the problems of stateless people itself

                       b)    Gives the people a platform from which to be heard

                       c)    Has cleared up misunderstandings and forestalled conflict

 III .    The law of the sea

           A.   After long negotiations the UN Convention on the law of the sea achieved a treaty in 1982

                 1.    Debates on national claims to adjacent waters are centuries old

                 2.    Different countries claimed different numbers of miles of territorial sea

           B.   The Truman Proclamation

                 1.    The United States would regulate fisheries' activities adjacent to its coastlines

                 2.    The United States would have jurisdiction over the continental shelf and its contents

                 3.    This focuses attention on the potential of the continental shelves

                 4.    Argentina claimed not only the continental shelves but the waters lying above it

           C.   Widening maritime claims

                 1.    In 1947 Chili and Peru claimed their seaward boundaries lay 200 miles into the Pacific

                 2.    Economic motives have been the driving force behind maritime expansion

           D.   The UNCLOS process

                 1.    UNCLOS I, convened in 1958, was unsuccessful as was the second conference in 1960

                 2.    UNCLOS III began in 1973 and ended in 1982 with a successful treaty

                 3.    Main provisions of the treaty:

                       a)    The territorial sea–12 nautical miles

                       b)    The exclusive economic zone–200 to 350 nautical miles, depending on the extension of the continental shelf

                 4.    The United States finally ratified the treaty in June 1994

           E.   Median lines

                 1.    The treaty has generally been adopted in international relations

                 2.    Figure 27-2 shows the effect of the 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

                 3.    When states are closer together than 400 miles a median line is drawn between them

                 4.    Some disputes have arisen over resources under the sea

  IV.    Regional multinational unions

           A.   Benelux , the first–Netherlands, Belgium , and Luxembourg

                 1.    Have much in common including economic complementarity

                 2.    Reduced divisiveness of their political boundaries

                 3.    Encouraged other European states to consider economic unions

           B.   Toward European union

                 1.    Forming the Organization of the European Economic Community (OEEC)

                 2.    France proposed a union with six other states called the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)

                 3.    The ECSC through negotiations and agreement led to the formation of the EEC or                                    Common Market

                 4.    Expansion created the European Community (EC)

                 5.    In 1992, further expansion led to creation of the European Union (EU). See Figure 27-4.

                 6.    The future of European Supranationalism

                       a)    A difficult process causing painful adjustments in some states

                       b)    Concern over Germany being the most populous and most productive of the EU states

                       c)    The EU is still a patchwork of states

                 7.    Expansion

                       a)    Expansion eastward may cause strains on the EU

                       b)    Turkey has been denied membership on the basis of its human rights record

                       c)    Wealthy states are expected to help support new poorer members

                       d)    Progress toward supranational goals tends to be cyclic and flourishes when economic times are good

           C.   Supranationalism elsewhere

                 1.    NAFTA–the North American Free Trade Agreement

                 2.    Caribbean Community

                 3.    South America–Andean Group and Southern Cone Community Market

                 4.    Economic Community of West African States

                 5.    Today, new groups are forming in almost all parts of the world

           D.   Other forms of Supranationalism

                 1.    Often the formation of one group spawns another

                 2.    Paralleled by formation of military alliances, which normally allow use of military bases by member forces

                 3.    Discussion of NATO and its growth

                 3.    Other organizations are based on cultural objectives, some have political overtones

               4.       Some organizations are political unions



   I.    Introduction

  II.    Forces of devolution

          A.   The counterforce to supranationalism

                1.    Today, many states are afflicted by internal centrifugal forces

                2.    No New World Order can be established as long as destabilizing forces exist

                3.    Even some the world's oldest states are subject to devolution

          B.   Cultural forces (Figure 35-1)

                1.    Time has failed to submerge regionalism in the United Kingdom

                      a)    Rising tide of separatism in Scotland and Wales

                      b)    Underscored the cultural forces at work in many states

                2.    Spain–greater autonomy desired by Basques and province of Catalonia

                3.    Belgium–Flanders and Wallonia

                4.    Czechoslovakia–peacefully divided into the Czech Republic and Slovakia

                5.    Discussion on the break-up of Yugoslavia

                6.    Sudan–Muslim north and non-Muslim south

                7.    Sri Lanka

          C.   Economic forces

                1.    Catalonia

                2.    Discussion of Italy , France , and Brazil

          D.   Spatial factors

                1.    Devolutionary events occur on the margins of states

                2.    Many islands are also subject to devolutionary forces

                3.    Discussion of devolutionary forces in the United States

 III.    Devolution of the Soviet Union

          A.   A former world power

                1.    Caused by the explosion of centrifugal forces in an already weakened country

                2.    End of Soviet domination in Eastern Europe and fall of the Berlin Wall

                3.    Devolutionary forces grew rapidly as the republics declared their independence

                4.    Each of the new 15 republics faced centrifugal forces from within

                5.    Old animosities between ethnic groups surged to the surface

          B.   The Near-Abroad

                1.    Presence of about 25 million Russians in former Soviet Republics along Russia 's rim

                2.    Discussion of Georgia 's civil war

                3.    Discussion of how the Soviet planners created a doomed economic system and political framework

          C.   Devolution of Russia

                1.    Internal "republics" demanded more autonomy, more control over their own resources and                         facilities, and some wanted more territory

                2.    Cultural forces gave rise to an anti-Russian rebellion in Chechnya

                3.    The vastness of the country makes it hard to control faraway republics

                4.    The new Russia is a federal state

 IV.    The state in the new world order

          A.   States are vulnerable to many destructive forces

                1.    The state's weaknesses are underscored by growing power of regions, provinces, States, and other internal entities

                2.    Powerful provinces and their thriving urban cores engage in their own foreign commercial policies

                3.    Economic activities are being conducted on a global basis, making national boundaries less important

                4.    Yet, states maintain the armed forces and use them in the national interest

                5.    Majority of supranational alliances bind together states within geographic realms, not among them

                6.    The United States will not remain the dominant power in the world forever

                7.    A multipolar world may rise again

          B.   Toward a New World Order

                1.    Globalization

                      a)    Most commonly seen as an economic phenomenon

                      b)    States provide territorial foundation from which producers and consumers still operate

                      c)    Difficult for states to control economic relations

                      d)    State's position being eroded by globalization of social and cultural relations

                2.    Notions of democracy

                      a)    Definition and practice may vary

                      b)    A global democracy movement is under way

                      c)    Some African rulers see it as a one-party democracy

                3.    Growing influence of religion

                      1.     A global phenomenon

                      2.     Religious fundamentalism appeals to societies where prospects for democracy are dim

                      3.     There has been a burst of Shiite fundamentalism

                      4.     Return to the basics among Christians, Hindus, Buddhists, and others

          C.   Redrawing the map

                1.    Factors affecting the forming of a New World Order

                      a)    Weaknesses of the state systems

                      b)    Antiquated boundary framework

                      c)    The flow of weapons and diffusion of nuclear arms

                      d)    Diffusion of nuclear arms technology

                2.    Focus on: The Domino Theory

                3.    The foregoing underscores the risks should a New World Order come about by any means other than consensus